AA Breed Book

Parts of the book for you to view:

Chapter 2 

Mutts and Pure-breeds

What is a mutt? ----- A mutt is a dog whose lineage, family tree or ancestors are unknown.

Even if the dog looks like a purebred dog it cannot be identified as a purebred dog without a written lineage and tattoo.  A mutt is also known as a “Hines 57."  (Don’t go looking for the breed Hines 57)!   What that means is that the dog in question has so many different generations of different breeds in its family tree that this dog is a pure mutt.

There are dogs that have two different purebred dog parents.  These would be called F-1 generations, or first generations.  They may be called cockerpoo, terrypoo, shitzapoo, maltipoo, and many other forms of the names of two purebred registered dogs.  These dogs have been given registrations from Mutt Clubs of America, or the Poo Club and whatever other clubs are out there.  First generations do not breed true; therefore, first generational mixes are mutts also.  A pure of breed (purebred) breeds true.

A hybrid is an offspring that was produced by a male and female of different species.  Example: Mule.  Different breeds are not different species.  They are the same species carnivore domesticata or domesticated meat-eater.  That to me does not include the wolf.  If a wolf were a different species than the domesticated dog then a dog x wolf (or a pup from a mating of a dog and wolf) would be a hybrid.  A pup as a result of a boxer and Rottwieler breeding would not be a hybrid.  American Alsatians are not hybrids.

What is a pure-breed animal? ---- A pure breed animal is an animal that consistently reproduces itself.  This means, the same height, width, size, weight, eye position, ear position, tail carriage, trot, gallop or pace with the same coat consistency and the same skull dimensions.

A purebred dog is a canine that has been bred with various selectively chosen other dogs that possessed some trait or traits that the creator or breeder of that strain of dogs wished it to obtain.  When the offspring are bred to the same, they too will produce like progeny.

Create: 1. To cause to come into existence; originate.  2. To be the cause of; occasion: To create interest.  3. To produce. (Funk and Wagnall's Standard Desk Dictionary, p.150)

When the standards of a breed, any breed, are written down and followed then the formation of that animal comes together.  The bonds of the genetic code are more closely related and breeding to only these dogs, which resemble that standard, would solidify the progeny.  How many generations it takes to breed the dogs so that all puppies would resemble all other puppies, dams and sires, depends on how long it takes to get the results described in the written standards.

For example, say you wanted to create a new breed of dog, a dog that had a drop ear instead of an erect ear, yet with all other parts of the body being exactly the same.  Well, when you finally have all pups in all generations with drop ears and they continued to produce only drop ears, then you would have accomplished your feat.  (Erect ears are dominant.  Ear positioning varies.  I call it a sliding scale with the erect ear pulling stronger than the drop ear.  Therefore, erect ears are the dominant of the many different ear positions).

Another example of creating a new breed of dog would be the American Cocker Spaniel.  The early American cockers had flat coats that did not inhibit the job for which the cocker was created for in the first place.  The dog in this picture is considered by me as still having too long of a coat.  But it would not hinder him in the field.

No where in the standards of the American Cocker Spaniel does it say to clip the dog’s coat.  The American Cocker Spaniel’s standards of the breed calls for a flat coat that does not hide the cockers true lines and one that is easy to care for.  The standards of the breed explicitly state that excessive coat is to be penalized!  It also states that a cottony coat shall be penalized.  (Wonder what the American Cocker Spaniel Club considers cottony?) On the head the hair is short.  That's what the standards call for.  It does not say; clip the hair on the face with a number 7 fine tooth clipper blade.  It does not say to purchase a pair of thinning scissors and shape the entire dog to fit the standards.  The official standards do say:

"Medium length, with enough undercoating to give protection...but not so excessively as to hide the Cocker Spaniel’s true lines and movement or affect his appearance and function as a sporting dog.  The texture is most important.  The coast is silky, flat or slightly wavy, and of a texture which permits easy care.  Excessive or curly or cottony textured coat is to be penalized.” (Glover, 70)

So what do you think?  If you were a Judge, would you ever pick this breed to represent the best of all breeds when it doesn't even follow its own standards?  And how about going hunting?

Take a look at that noble long lost American cocker!  If I had that dog, I would be in dog heaven!  But there is no such dog any longer!  Here's the new American Cocker Spaniel.  What do you think?  Should we believe the American Kennel Club when it states that its main goal is “to do everything to advance the study, breeding, exhibiting, running, and maintenance of the purity of thorough-bred dogs.” (American Kennel Club, p.1)  By the way, that was a quote from one of their pamphlets.  Do you see anything wrong with that statement?  They called “purebred dog’s” “thorough-breds”. That’s a horse.


Going forward, there is nothing wrong with creating this beautiful new breed of cocker spaniel, it is a great dog, if that’s what you want.

Today because no one declared a new breed for this new cotton-coated Cocker Spaniel and, therefore, did not protect the old true American Cocker Spaniel, that old breed of spaniel is all but lost to the world!

The formation or creation of breed clubs and breed standards are the true beginnings of pure-breeds.  If the breed standards are well written and the true lovers of the breed stand up to any persons or conglomerates in the protection of their dogs then a true breed might just stand a good chance to keep its nobility.  Thus, the lovers of the breed would keep their dogs.

Before written standards or guidelines appeared, breeding one dog to another was sporadic.  Successful breeding was done only on the dog’s abilities to do his masters chosen line of work.  The farmer’s and Indian’s attitude on the subject of dogs was that the dog was an extension of his family and was a useful working animal that either did a job and retired or was used for food for those that could or would provide for the family unit.

Here are some histories of pure breeds that you might know:

Doberman Pincher --- In 1870 a man named Louis Doberman of Germany breed the Rottwieler with the German pinscher.  He also bred into the line a black and tan English Terrier and one of his shepherd dogs.  In return he produced a dog they called the German Terrier, which soon became the Doberman Pinscher.  This is why if one breeds a Doberman to a German Shepherd the pups come out looking like short hair German Shepherds with half cocked ears.

The Dalmatian --- This dog was originally a guard or war dog in Dalmatian or Croatia.  There is a possibility that the Dalmatian was being confused with the spotted German Mastiff, which was known at one time as the Tiger Dog.  The Dalmatian was probably a smaller version of the harlequin Great Dane, who was bred to the pointer to reduce the size and improve the markings.

The Boston Terrier --- This dog is a cross between a bulldog and an English Terrier.  Careful introduction of French Bulldog blood helped in perfecting the breed.

The Bichon Frise --- This dog descended from the Water Spaniel or Barbet and existed at first in four forms.  (The Maltais, the Bolognese, the Havanais and the Tenerife.) In 1933, an official standard was adopted and the breed became established under two names.  The Bichon and the Tenerife.  It was Madame de Leemans who proposed the name Bichon Frise.

Yorkshire Terrier --- The creators of this breed probably took the Clydesdale Terrier as the starting point then introduced the old English black and tan Terrier.  The Skye and Maltese would give the length and silkiness of the coat.  The Dandie Dinmont Terrier may have also been used.

Silky Terrier --- The two main ancestors of this breed were the Yorkshire Terrier and the Australian Terrier.  Breeding the Skye, the black and tan and the Maltese produced the Yorkshire Terrier.  The Australian Terrier was produced from the Skye, Dandie Dinmont and the Australian Terrier.  In 1900, in Australia, the Yorkshire Terrier and the Australian Silky shared the same breed club.  Soon after the turn of the century, breeders in Sydney started the Sydney Silky Club and the breed became widely known as the Sydney Silky.  It was not until 1959 that the Australian National Kennel Council adopted a standard for the breed and changed its name to the Australian Silky Terrier.

Shih Tzu --- The Lion dog of China, Tibetan Spaniel, Lhasa Apso and the Pekingese made up this dog.  In the 1930’s, these dogs were classified all together in one bunch as the Apso's.  They arrived in the U.S.A. registered as Apso's.  In 1940, the breed was granted a separate registry in Britain.

West Highland White --- All the terriers of Scotland came from the same rootstock.  They were all once the same dogs.  When a litter of pups produced a white or a tan pup, breeders would breed the whites and tans to others with the same colors.  Sometimes a longer legged pup would pop out in a litter and a man by the name of Col. E. D. Malcolm of Poltalloch would go on to bred those long legged terriers together to come up with the West Highland Whites.

These are just a few.  As I stated before, all dogs were selectively bred at one time or another and a new breed was formed.


Q- How many generations make a purebred? 

A- As many as necessary until all prodigy or offspring beget offspring that resembles each other.


What is a wolf dog? --- Though scientists today categorize the wolf and the dog as the same species, I cannot.  To me a wolf is not a domesticated animal nor can it be, in my opinion.  The wolf is a wild animal with extremely strong inherited instincts.  I do believe it is dangerous to think of wolves as just untrained dogs.  If wolves were left wild they would continue to be a pure strain. 

The biggest reason for me to not categorize the wolf and the dog as the same species regardless of their microcondria DNA is that the female wolf and the female dog do not even share the same estrogen cycle.  I don’t know about you but that’s an awful big difference between the two in my book!

I have done a lot of reading on the subject of wolf/dog crosses and as of today I personally do not believe that a wolf will breed with a dog without the tampering (artificial inseminations) of the pair.  I prefer to believe the old writers who have continuously written in their experience that no wolf would breed with a dog, as they prefer to eat them.  I also would believe a native Alaskan Eskimo before I would anyone who writes fictional stories of wolves breeding with dogs.  As for the facts that wolf/dog crosses do exist, I believe that they do. But what kind of pet would that be?  I do not think that I would want to take any wild animal out of its natural habitat just to please myself and my ego.


What is a Pedigree -- A pedigree is a lineage, a written log of ancestors, or a family tree.  Most people think a pedigree is a written log of a specific breed with mothers and fathers within that same breed and only that breed.  That thinking is incorrect.  Again, a pedigree is a record of offspring and mating's or marriages.  If a person keeps a written record of all breeding's (even of inter-breeding's between other different breeds) you would still have a written record of mating's.  That is a pedigree.

Pedigree - 1. A line of ancestors: lineage 2. A list or table of descent and relationship, esp. of an animal or pure breed.  (Funk and Wagnall's, p. 483)

Genealogy - 1.  A record or table showing the decent of an individual or family from a certain ancestor.  2. Decent in a direct line from a progenitor; pedigree.  3.  The study of pedigrees.  (Funk and Wagnall’s, p. 266)

Some folks ask, “How can the Alsatians have a pedigree?”  The answer is simple.  I have recorded all the mating's. 

I used mostly registered dogs for breeding's that have their pedigrees go as far back as the beginning of the registry club they belong to.  The one difference is that I know the breedings of the American Alsatians, because I bred, recorded and have taken photographs of all my dogs.  I do not know for a fact that the purebred animals I have purchased (with their grandeur lines of champions) were who their breeders claimed them to be.  A.K.C does not require photos and/or tattoos.  I have heard that they are introducing DNA recordings.  Smart.

Inbreeding or Line breeding

  It really upsets me that so many ill informed people including doctors of veterinarian medicine use this word (inbreeding) to describe something terrible, disgusting and almost alien.

Every time someone refers to the depletion of the breeds, whether it is the coat or skin allergies, they refer to this word “inbreeding” as if this were the problem to end all problems.  They may be correct in the way breeders chose to improperly inbreed dogs, but when used correctly inbreeding sets genetic characteristics. 

Inbreeding is a good thing to do if the breeder understands what he/she is doing.  The real trouble here is that a lot of breeders do not know how to inbreed. 

Let me explain how to inbreed, or line breed.  You have to have guts, determination and perseverance and you must go the distance!  Most of the problems in the breeds today are that breeders didn’t/couldn’t go the distance.  Kind of like riding a jumper and when you get to that 6-foot wall you pull up and slam into the wall.

Inbreeding is breeding father to daughter, half brother to half sister, son to mother, and by the closest inbreeding of all, brother to sister.

Inbreeding concentrates both the good features and the faults.  It strengthens dominants and brings the recessives out into the open where they can be seen and evaluated.  It supplies the breeder with the only control he can have over the combining and balancing of similar genetic factors.  Inbreeding does not produce degeneration it merely concentrates weaknesses already present so that they can be eliminated. 

Do not inbreed unless you have a really great dog.  That is the difficult part.  Getting yourself a really great dog and knowing it inside and out.  But, let’s say you have a really great stud dog.  You have stepped back and have looked at this dog objectionably.  (In my opinion here lies the problem.  Everyone thinks his or her dog is the really great dog!) I don’t blame you; we all want to think that, but can you look at your dog objectionably? As you can see this may be a slight problem for a lot of folks.

Let’s say you know your stuff and your dog is exceptional.  You check out his pedigree.  Let’s say his pedigree or family tree is not a lie.  Next you contact all people who have all these dogs listed in the pedigree as far back as you can go.  You go to see the dogs, take pictures and spend some time with them.  You look at the family photo albums and you get to know the dogs.  You take notes and color-code their faults on a chart that you have made up for all the dogs that you are going to see.  Next you go to all the aunts and uncles in the direct upline and color-code their faults.  Then you go to all the brothers and sisters you can find and color-code their faults.  What do you mean you don’t see any faults?  Hehe.  Is there a perfect dog?  Call me.  Just joking.

Ok, now you have got an Idea of the genetic inheritance of the coat, skin, eyes, ears, body structure, bone density, x-ray and hips.  The character of the whole mass of who your stud dog is and of what he possesses genetically.  You will be able to see into the puppies that come from him which characteristics they have from these lines and what characteristics each of the parents are strong in.

Do not rely on championships handed-out in a show ring by judges who may be prejudice or who may have gotten a kickback when putting a certain dog up.  All littermates could be dysplastic, rely on your investigative research.  Show breeders may think that having a champion dog means that the dog has fewer faults than the other dogs and will breed fewer faults.  It sounds logical, doesn't it?  Their only proof that they bred a great pup would be if the pup wins in the show ring.  What If I had twenty-six dogs and put them all in the show ring?  Who would win?  What if I found out that another dog might win over mine, so I kept all of mine out of the ring at that time?  Can you understand why this type of thinking may deteriorate the whole breed?  A champion stud dog, with hidden recessive bad genes (for say “hyper ness”), is now breeding hundreds of bitches throughout the world.  Do you think that a judge might possibly see that hyper ness in that dog and not put that dog up?  What if hyper ness was confused with loving the show game and presenting himself as a happy go lucky dog? 

Canines have been having pups and breeding on there own for longer than humans have been on this earth.  The elements, the pain, the suffering and the dying are God’s breeding plan and his breeding has made the wild canine a strong group of mammals.  Perhaps that is one reason the mutts of the world live longer than our pure-breeds.  (And cost less in veterinarian bills.)

Here is my suggestion: Plan your kennels with grass, dirt, rocks and a stream going through it then leave the dogs to breed.  Feed them good natural foods.  Plant some grapes along the kennel run.  Put some mint next to the water trough. 

Test the pups and write it down on their charts.  The first 6 weeks you should be observing and reporting all that these pups do.  Who whines?  Who walks first?  Who eats more than the others do?  Who is too weak to grab on to the teat?  Of course some will die, especially if there is a lot of weakness in your breed of dog in the beginning. 

For American Alsatian pups:

First test: For the first 3 1/2 weeks do not touch the pups!  This is most important.  Do not let them smell you or know you.  Figure out per your breed standards what your pups should be like and with the least bit of interruptions that might sway the true nature and character of the pups, do your first real test.  Remove the mother and lock her out away from the pups.  Go into the pups and put your hand on the floor about one foot away from the pups.  Don't say a word.  Who comes to investigate first?  Who runs?  Who cries?  Who shakes?  If you have any like the before mentioned characteristics and that pup does not fit the breed standards what are you going to do? 

Breeders belong to a strong unity of humans who understand the great importance of the work they do.  They realize that every dog that they bring into the world is a representative of their dogs and of that particular breed.  Breeders are a unique type of person and not everyone can be a breeder.  It’s not easy and we do cry a lot at times.

Inbreeding is the way to fix certain traits.  I had to inbreed three times strong back to a particular stud dog.  Then I bred to the bitch’s half brother.  Breeding like this brings out any hidden recessive traits that no one sees.  It doubles and triples up those genes.  That’s how I got rid of some really bad problems that came from the registered purebred stock. 

Inbreeding also makes all of the dogs in a family so similar that they would appear to be twins.  It ‘sets’ the genes.  This is why I continue to tell you that when inbreeding, the breeder absolutely must select only the strongest and most prolific pups in every litter.  And it may not be the prettiest!  So how do you know which one to breed back too?  You must leave the pups do for themselves.  You must observe and report and not touch the pups.  You must do repetitive tests on all pups at certain ages in their growth.  You must be strong in your goal and you must not waver off the path.

Inbreeding and line breeding are essential in establishing desirable traits and weeding out the undesirable.  So when a person attacks breeders with that very bad word “inbreeding” and says that inbreeding is deteriorating the breeds and causing weakness and allergies in the pure-bred strains, then I say you do not know what you are talking about when it comes to the art and skill of breeding.  I will agree that un-educated breeders may be inbreeding or line breeding and not going back far enough to double the bad traits and weed them out.  I firmly believe that educating folks is the way to go, not bombarding breeders with the news media and unleashing the gates of hell on them.  That just spreads hate and discontent and we have enough of that in the world. 

A breeder must also understand the hybrid vigor of out crossing and use that when needed.  The mirror opposite of inbreeding is out-breeding. 

Education is the key to understanding and understanding is the key to the universe as love and understanding hold us all together.

Line breeding --- Line breeding is a broader kind of inbreeding that conserves valuable characteristics by concentration and in a general sense gives us some control of ‘type’ but a lesser control over specific characteristics.  It creates “strains” or “families” within the breed itself, which are easily recognized by their similar conformation. 

Line breeding entails the selection of breeding partners who have one or more common ancestors in their pedigrees.  These individuals occur repeatedly within the first four or five generations so that it can be assumed their genetic influence molds the type of the succeeding generations.

Selection is an important factor here also, for if we line breed to ‘set’ that specific type of character, then we must select breeding stock in the next generations, which is the prototype of that individual. 

1.  Decide what traits are essential and what faults are intolerable.  Character and temperament must be included.  You must be able to strip away the training influences to see the raw dog.

2.  Develop a scoring system and score selected good and bad faults with your breeding aim in mind.

3.  Line breed consistently to the best individuals produced which by your temperament and character tests show that they will further improve the strain.  Understand that coat and coloring of any animal is the easy stuff to fix.  The hard part is the unseen character of the dogs.

Outcross breeding --- Out crossings can be made to bring in the wanted characteristics if they are missing from the basic stock.  It is also vital in strengthening lines.  Most breeders refuse to outbreed (out-cross) because the result might be no ribbons, recognition or monetary rewards.

Relationship need not be close in the foundation animals since wide outcrosses will give greater variation and therefore, will offer a much wider selection of the desirable trait combinations.

Outcross breeding is the choosing of breeding partners whose pedigrees in the first five or six generations are free from any common ancestry.  One of the partners should be inbred or closely line-bred.  Out crossing will bring in new and needed characteristics into the strain.  This is vitally important for vigor, strength, and vitality in your strain.

The Furthest out-crossing is breeding two different breeds together and can be used to bring in hybrid vigor. Of course when one out-crosses one must choose a dog or breed that has something of what you are missing or what you want in your stock.

Breeding for Intelligence

What is intelligence and how do we define it when we talk about breeding dogs? 

Funk and Wagnall define intelligence as “the ability to adapt to new situations.  Understanding; reasoning.”  If this is the true definition of intelligence, then animals cannot be classified as intelligent.  I beg you to reread that definition of intelligence.  The Homo sapiens are the only creatures on earth with the ability to reason.  That is one of the ways that we were formed in the likeness of God himself.  I have not found any animal that could reason in my lifetime.  So what is intelligence in the dog?

 If by intelligence in the canine we accept the definition “the ability to cope with the environment” then God certainly has the upper hand here.  If a canine cannot cope in the wild, it dies.  What about domesticated dogs?  Certainly most of the breeds would never make it in the wild.  I guess all our breeding's for the perfect domesticated dog took the intelligence right out of the canine! 

I believe that any doggy intelligence tests given to different breeds of dogs could only be validated if judged within the separate breeds and amongst themselves.  Certainly, a Chihuahua cannot compete with a German Shepherd Dog when a human wishes to determine which breeds of dogs are intelligent or not.  It is rather stupid to judge “the ability to cope with the environment” of a dog in a test of all breeds tested together.  But it was done!  And it was on National TV.  I knew right away that the person performing such a test could not know much about the domesticated dog breeds throughout the world.  Different breeds have been bred for different characteristics.  And tell me who would want a domesticated dog that was closest to the wild?  “Able to cope with the environment."  That's the reason civilized man took the dog out of the wild, to domesticate him.  To make him stupid?  Ha!  No way!  The reason was to make the dog fit into our domestic ways, to take the wild out of the dog.  And we did it with the most submissive of animals for they are the ones that were able to fit into the Homo sapiens world, to take care of his clan, to hunt and to stay by his side.

If Intelligence in the canine is defined as “the ability to adapt to new situations within the earths wild environment and survive” then by this definition alone the wolf would come out as intelligent and I would not be able to use the word intelligent together in the same sentence with a domesticated dog.  But, if someone included the definition of the domesticated canine as: “the ability of the species to perform the work it was created for and to adapt itself to the changes in the environment and the conditions it encounters as it performs its designated tasks”, then I believe we could once again use the word intelligence within the breeds. By the way, that is MY DEFINITION of the word INTELLEGENCE IN THE CANINE SPECIES. ™

The easiest way I know of to provide such breeding for intelligence tests would be within the breeds own club.  Yes the breed club!   Who would know more about that particular breed than those who admire and love the breed?  Those who have given their lives to the breed and who have studied bred and tested their dogs. 

How a dog thinks

Animals do not think as you or I do.  They learn by a process of what works and what doesn’t, combined with genetic instincts.  God created animals with a sole, if you believe in the words of the bible in Genesis.  Unlike humans though, they do not have the ability to reason.  Their thinking process is just a learned process by the way of what works or what doesn’t work for them to survive or to get what they want.  Many folks will disagree with me and bring up many examples, far too many to write in this book.  If you take an open and objectionable look at any of those examples you will find that the animal learned the behavior that you are describing.

Animals do not plan ahead, nor do they know what “time” is.  When they go to the door at five o’clock to meet you they have learned that the consistent sounds of the day tell them what is going to happen next.  School busses, mail trucks and the morning alarm all signal them.  It is because of consistency that is learned, that they know what will happen next because it always does.

Animals act in the “now” and they have a learned process of what they have done before that is applied to what they are doing.  They run off hunger and sorry, but they do not know what love is or means.  After 18 years of being with you they do miss your presence around them.  They have grown accustomed to you always doing what you do and being an entity within their life.  They do know that they get a pet if they are in your lap because it’s happened before.  If they look at you with a head cocked they have learned that it brings a desired result.  They read your body language.  They do learn words by the sound or the way the word is spoken to them through learned experiences.  If I say to my dog “you bad dog, you are so ugly and you stink and are so stupid” and if I say that in a cute, high pitched voice with a smile and I bend so that I am less a threat, the dog will wag his tail and come to me happy and excited.  They do not know words unless you teach them.  It is the tone of your voice and your body posture or what I call the ‘universal language’ ™.

Of course they know pain but they are not in their pain.  If something hurts it hurts them for as long as the pain is there.  The greatest thing about animals is the way they adapt or except their surroundings.  They make the best of their lives by becoming as close a part of it as they can.  They do not know or think how they can change their lives. They are in the “now” always.

One of the biggest reasons that I know of for you not to be able to understand or communicate unconsciously to your animal is your state of mind. Many, far too many people think of their dog as having humanistic reasoning.  If you must think of your pup as human, think of him as a 6-month-old child with autism.  Do not get upset if your pet does not live up to your human way of thinking.  Your dog is not a human and never will be.  Dogs do not harbor gratitude.  They are not thankful.  Your dog does not have a sense of duty to you or to any other creature than to himself.